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Reduced glutathione, commonly known as glutathione or GSH, is a tripeptide consisting of L-glutamine, L-cysteine, and glycine. It is ubiquitous in living systems. Glutathione biosynthesis can be limited by genetic enzymatic alterations, cysteine availability, protein-energy malnutrition, or other dietary amino acid deficiencies. Disease and chronic oxidative load can also deplete cellular glutathione. Precursors to glutathione such as whey protein, vitamin C, and glutamine are often recommended to boost glutathione levels in the body; however, results are inconsistent. Biological individuality is such that not every body has the ability to successfully metabolize the precursor to raise glutathione.
Why Not Give Pure Glutathione? Unfortunately, most oral forms of glutathione are foul smelling, but more importantly, the majority of an oral dose is oxidized before it can be absorbed and used by the cells. S-Acetyl Glutathione is a unique preparation of glutathione that overcomes these usual limitations. The stability of S-acetylglutathione through the intestinal wall and the plasma is well documented in the literature. Oral intake of S-acetylglutathione increases total glutathione and percent-reduced glutathione. Percent-reduced glutathione is a very significant biomarker of health status.[1-5]
Mechanism of Absorption S-acetylglutathione, a lipid-like compound, is taken up intact by chylomicrons in the gut. The acetyl bond is placed on its thiol group or sulfur group, which prevents oxidation and allows the molecule to pass diffusively into the cell after absorption in the gut. The bond is then cleaved by non-specific enzymes inside the cell. Acetylation prevents the breakdown of glutathione, and S-acetylglutathione does not require energy expenditure to be cleaved to reduced glutathione once it crosses the cell wall.[1-8]
The “Master Antioxidant” Glutathione functions extensively in tissues and organs throughout the body. It plays critical roles in protecting the body from oxidative stress, maintaining cellular functions, and supporting healthy immune function.[1,4] The presence of heavy metals, foreign microbes, tissue trauma, inflammatory compounds, and oxidative stressors impairs glutathione/antioxidant function, ultimately leading to a fierce cycle of increased inflammation and oxidative stress. Mutating cells or those in uncontrolled replication, as well as cells that are being challenged by foreign microbes, are shown to have altered glutathione status. Depletion of glutathione may result in insufficient detoxification and increased susceptibility to oxidation, in part because glutathione is also needed to maintain exogenous antioxidants such as vitamins C and E in their reduced (active) forms. This incomplete biotransformation and loss of antioxidant protection leaves cells and tissue vulnerable to irreversible damage. Indeed, many disease states occur when reduced glutathione is low.[2,5]
Other Benefits of Maintaining Healthy Glutathione Levels Much information related to mitochondrial health has surfaced in the literature. Mitochondria, the energy-producing powerhouses of cells, are also the primary intracellular site of oxygen consumption and the major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Inadequate intracellular defenses can result in damage to mitochondria. S-acetylglutathione has been shown to cross the membrane of the mitochondria, increasing the organelle’s activity and minimizing ROS.[8,9] Reduction of ROS is associated with maintaining mitochondrial integrity and function, and improved mitochondrial health translates into improved overall health and energy.
S-acetylglutathione has also been shown to decrease a variety of inflammatory markers such as TNF-alpha, NF-kappa beta, and F-2 isoprostane.[4,9-12] Additionally, there is mounting evidence that intracellular glutathione levels in antigen- presenting cells (e.g. macrophages) may influence the Th1/Th2 cytokine response pattern and promote a more balanced immune reaction.
Take one to two tablets one to two times daily, or as directed by your healthcare practitioner.
Serving Size: 2 Tablets Servings Per Container: 30
Amount Per Serving %Daily Value
S-Acetyl Glutathione MJ923† 200 mg
** Daily Value not established.
Other Ingredients: Silicified microcrystalline cellulose, croscarmellose, rice starch, and magnesium stearate.
† S-Acetyl Glutathione MJ923 is a proprietary formulation for which a patent application has been made with the US PTO. The registration number is USPTO Ser. No. 11/743,138.
1. Locigno R, Pincemail J, Henno A, et al. S-Acetyl-glutathione selectively induces apoptosis in human lymphoma cells through a GSH- independent mechanism. Int J Oncol. 2002 Jan;20(1):69-75. [PMID: 11743644] 2. Lomaestro BM, Malone M. Glutathione in health and disease: pharmacotherapeutic issues. Ann Pharmacother. 1995 Dec;29(12):1263-73. [PMID: 8672832]
3. Cacciatore I, Cornacchia C, Pinnen F, et al. Prodrug approach for increasing cellular glutathione levels. Molecules. 2010 Mar 3;15(3):1242- 64. [PMID: 20335977] 4. Vogel J, Cinatl J, Dauletbaev N, et al. Effects of S-acetylglutathione in cell and animal model of herpes simplex virus type 1 infection. Med Microbiol Immunol. 2005 Jan;194(1-2):55-59. [PMID: 14624358]
5. Ballatori N, Krance SM, Notenboom S, et al. Glutathione dysregulation and the etiology and progression of human diseases. Biol Chem. 2009 Mar;390(3):191-214. [PMID: 19166318] 6. Richman PG, Meister A. Regulation of gamma-glutamyl-cysteine synthetase by nonallosteric feedback inhibition by glutathione. J Biol Chem. 1975 Feb 25;250(4):1422-26. [PMID: 1112810]
7. Anderson ME, Powrie F, Puri RN, et al. Glutathione monoethyl ester: preparation, uptake by tissues, and conversion to glutathione. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1985 Jun;239(2):538-48. [PMID: 4004275]
Anderson ME, Nilsson M, Sims NR. Glutathione monoethyl ester prevents mitochondrial glutathione depletion during focal cerebral ischemia. Neurochem Int. 2004 Feb;44(3):153-59. [PMID: 14568558] Kretzschmar M. Regulation of hepatic glutathione metabolism and its role in hepatotoxicity. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 1996 Jul;48(5):439-46. [PMID: 8765689]
Fraternale A, Paoletti MF, Casabianca A, et al. Antiviral and immunomodulatory properties of new pro-glutathione (GSH) molecules. Curr Med Chem. 2006;13(15):1749-55. [PMID: 16787218] Kretzschmar M, Klinger W. The hepatic glutathione system—influences of xenobiotics. Exp Pathol. 1990;38(3):145-64. [PMID: 2192911] Donnerstag B, Ohlenschlager G, Cinatl J, et al. Reduced glutathione and S-acetylglutathione as selective apoptosis-inducing agents in cancer therapy. Cancer Lett. 1996 Dec;110(1-2):63-70. [PMID: 9018082]
Consult your healthcare practitioner before use. Keep out of reach of children. Avoid if allergic to any ingredient.
DRS-260 REV. 10/27/11